Transformation: A Means Of Genetic Transfer

May 27, 2018

Transformation is the genetic alteration of the cell which is the consequence of uptake, incorporation and expression of exogenous genetic material that is taken up through cell membrane. It occurs in bacteria and a few species in a pure manner. Transformation can also be caused be artificial means. Compounds that bear the potential of undergoing transformation by their own or by artificial means are termed as capable. Transgender Biohacking can be traded between two different bacterial cells either by conjugation or transduction. Conjugation involves direct transfer of genetic material from 1 cell to another through contact. Introduction of this foreign DNA into the eukaryotic cells is known as transfection. Transduction may also be used as a tool for the introduction of foreign DNA to a non-bacterial mobile that might be either a plant cell or a animal cell.

Transformation was initially demonstrated by an English bacteriologist Frederick Griffith in 1928 who was looking for a vaccine against bacterial pneumonia. He discovered that a harmless strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae can be produced virulent if subjected to the warmth killed virulent strains. He guessed that there is some shifting variable gift that has the potential for making the harmless and non-virulent strain to become virulent and harmful. They isolated the DNA from the virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae and with the help of this genetic material they could create the harmless non-virulent strain. They called this uptake and incorporation of DNA from the bacteria as transforamation. Transformation didn’t become the normal process until 1972 when Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang and Leslie Hsu successfully transformed Escherichia coli by treating the germs with calcium chloride. They created an efficient and convenient process that became a milestone in the business of biotechnology and research.

Transformation by using electroporation was developed in the late 1980s once the efficiency and the number of bacterial cells can be raised via conversion. Transformation of plant cell and animal cell was also started and the initial transgenic mouse was produced in 1982. In 1907 a bacterium called as Agrobacterium tumefaciens was found which was in charge of causing tumors at the plants along with the tumor causing agent was found to be DNA plasmid called Ti-plasmid. Bacterial transformation could be called as a stable genetic change caused by uptake of foreign DNA and competence might be defined as the state of being able to take the exogenous DNA in the environment. Competence could be natural or artificial. Approximately 1% of the bacterial population can take the DNA naturally beneath the laboratory conditions and many more species are known to take up the foreign DNA in their natural surroundings. These germs carry a set of enzymes that provide the protein machines to deliver the DNA across the cell membrane.